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NOUN: A word (other than a pronoun) used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things.


There are five kinds of Nouns; 1 Proper Noun, 2 Common Noun, 3 Material Noun, 4 Collective Noun and 5 Abstract Noun.

1. Proper Noun: When the noun denotes one specific thing, place, or person as distinct from all others, it is called Proper Noun; like, Hemraj (name of a person), India (name of a place), and Geeta  (name of a book).
N.B. – A Proper Noun should always be commenced with capital letter.

2. Common Noun:  all things or persons of the same class or kind, it is called Common Noun; like, ‘man’, ‘city’, ‘book’.
Here, ‘man’ denotes any and every man. ‘City’ denotes all the cities in this world and ‘book’ points out all books.
N.B. – Sometimes, a Proper Noun acts as a Common Noun, when it’s used in a general sense; like,

3. Material Noun: It donates the matter or substance of which kind a thing is made. For example wood, clay, rubber, iron, silver, gold, cloth, etc.
N.B. – According to the sense, the same word can be used as a Common Noun or a Material Noun.
a)      “Cow gives milk”. In this sentence, ‘milk’ is represented as a Common Noun.
b)      “Milk is a balanced food”. In this sentence, ‘milk’ is a Material Noun.

4. Collective Noun: When the noun denotes a group or a collection of objects, considered as single complete whole, it is called Collective Noun. These objects can be animals, emotions, people, concepts, inanimate things or other things.
For example; Army, class, host, jury, mob, crowd, team, parliament, committee, family, fleet, etc.

5. Abstract Noun: It expresses quality, state or action. For example: Truth, love, soul, mind, greatness, life, poverty, manhood, pleasure, pain, honesty, etc.

Abstract Nouns from Common Nouns
Common Noun          Abstract Noun
King                               Kingship
Rascal                           Rascality
Slave                             Slavery
Captain                         Captaincy
Agent                            Agency
Friend                           Friendship

Abstract Nouns from Adjectives
Adjective                     Abstract Noun
Cold                               Coldness
Wide                              Width
Sweet                             Sweetness
Proud                             Pride
Brave                             Bravery
Great                             Greatness

Abstract Nouns from Verbs

Verbs Abstract Noun
Serve                             Service
Please                            Pleasure
Protect                           Protection
Conceal                         Concealment
Expect                           Expectation
Free                               Freedom

Nouns ending in S but singular in form are:

  1. abyss,  access, address, ass, athletics, bans, basis, bass, bias, binoculars, bliss, boss, brass, bras, bus, cactus, carcass, caress, chess, Chablis, chess, class, clothes, compress, congress, cress, cross, cypress, dais, Dallas, diabetes, dialysis, dress, dross, duress, egress, emphasis, excess, express, floss, fortress, fuss, gas, glass, gloss, goddess, grass, gross, guess, hippopotamus, hiss, homunculus, ibis, impress, iris, jeans, kiss, lass, lens, less, loss, loss, mantis, mass, Massachusetts, mathematics, measles, mess, minus, miss, mistress, molasses, morass, moss, mumps, muss, narcissus, news, octopus, pants, papyrus, Paris, pass,  physics, platypus, plus, press (printing), progress, pus, puss, rebus, redress, regress, sass, sassafras, sis, stress, stylus, success, Texas, tights, tongs, tress, trousers, truss, tweezers, walrus, watercress, witness, yes, Zeus,
Some plural nouns that don't end in S: 
Alumni, amoebae, bacteria, cacti, children, criteria, data, feet, formula, geese, media, men, mice, moose, octopi, oxen, people, phenomena, sheep, teeth.

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